Actually, in a perfect world you would have the brooder box ready and heating up a day before your chicks arrive.
This will give you plenty of time to play around with the temperature of the box, and adjust any settings to make sure it is an ideal environment for your newborn chicks.
You might consider purchasing a cheap thermometer so that you can monitor the temperature of the brooder directly under the heat source, as well as in the corners.
There are a few very basic things you need to know when building a brooder.
Some people like to make it very technical and scientific, but I’m gonna give it to you in just a few simple steps- because building a brooder box really doesn’t have to be complicated.
Table of Contents:
Here’s what you’ll need:
- A container/box (specifics to follow)
- A Heat Lamp and Heat Bulb
- A Thermometer
- A watering base
- A feeder base
- Two 1-Quart Jars (for feeder and waterer)
- Chick Starter Feed
- Baby chicks
You could go the more expensive route and buy a heated poultry brooder, but you’d save some money by making your own out of whatever you have on hand if you are able to do so.
Most people use either a cardboard or wooden box, or a plastic storage tote like I have pictured above. Ideally, you should make your brooder out of a material that will not rot exceptionally fast, and that can be moved easily once your chickens have grown.
However, almost anything about a foot deep will do. Taller is better, because as your chickens grow they will learn how to jump – you don’t want any escapee chickens on your hand!
This is especially true if you are raising your chicks in an area where pets or other potential predators can get at them.
(Side note: In the picture above, the chicks are a little bit too crowded. I actually had more than I expected to hatch out of the incubator, and ended up moving these babies to a larger box. But at least you can get an idea of my setup.)
I’ve seen people make a brooder in a standard bathtub by lining it with plastic, then adding newspapers and pine shavings for bedding. An old baby playpen might also work well.
Kiddie pools are another inexpensive option for a homemade brooder. Practically anything with walls around it will do.
Here’s what you need to know before deciding on the right brooder for you…
Size- For the first four weeks, baby chicks need about 1/4 square foot of space per chick. From four to eight weeks, baby chicks need 1/2 square foot of space per chick.
I’m not saying you should calculate space needed exactly, but just eyeball it using this recommendation as a general guide, and make sure your chicks aren’t on top of each other in the brooder. If they’re crowded, they can smother each other to death by standing on top of each other.
Crowded chicks are also more likely to become aggressive towards each other. You want to avoid this as much as possible, as pecking behaviors started early can become a major problem later on..
Depth– Anything 12″ deep will keep baby chicks from escaping for several weeks without the need for a cover. If you go much less than that, by about three weeks of age the chicks will be able to fly out so you’ll need a cover.
Cover– Some people like to put hardware cloth over the top of their brooder to keep their chicks from flying out, or to keep children, cats, or other animals from bothering the chicks.
If you do decide to cover your brooder, just make sure that there is plenty of ventilation going on. A good option is a roll of chicken wire nailed to a few boards to keep it secured, but also easily removable so that you can feed and water the birds.
Location- We usually keep our brooder in the house until we can’t stand the smell and the peeping-all-night-long, by which time the chicks are usually a few weeks old and we can move them to a separate pen out in the chicken run.
When we’re ready for the chicks to go out, we put a heat lamp in the outdoor brooder and move the babies there. Mainly, we keep the chicks indoors for the first few weeks so we can keep a close eye on them, and for the kids to enjoy watching.
If your brooder will be outdoors from day one, make sure it is in a dry and draft free location. Cool air will chill your baby chicks and will quickly kill them. If your brooder is in a location like a barn, make sure predators, like barn cats, can’t get in to kill the birds.
Wherever you choose to put your brooder, keep in mind that power is always a concern as you need to keep the light on at all times.
What you put in the bottom of your brooder box is important. Bedding is necessary to keep your chicks from walking in their own filth. It is also important that your chicks are walking on a non-slippery surface.
If your chicks slip around, they can develop splayed legs, a crippling debilitation.
Hardware cloth (wire) does not make a good flooring for a brooder. It is hard on baby chicks’ feet, they can get stuck and injured in it, and it also prevents them from building up an immunity to coccidiosis. Wire flooring is not a good option.
There are several bedding materials which are perfectly suitable for baby chicks:
- a thick layer of newspaper underneath strips of paper towels
- old rags (avoid terry towels as baby chicks can get their feet stuck in the loops)
- shredded paper
- untreated pine shavings (NEVER use cedar, the oil is toxic to chicks as it affects the respiratory tracts – shavings work well as they can be made on your own property and also teach the chickens to scratch
- dried grass clippings (from unsprayed yard)
- chopped, dry leaves
- sand (make sure you get the right kind of sand, as play sand or other fine-particled sand won’t work well and can cause respiratory problems – you want construction-grade sand)
- puppy pads
- a non-adhesive Non-Slip Shelf Liner
My favorite bedding to use at this point is the shelf liner. It makes a nice, thick padding, and it’s washable which makes it a very inexpensive option if you reuse it over and over.
And unlike wood chips and other materials which constantly get into the chicks’ food and water, the shelf liner stays in place and doesn’t make a bigger mess.
You can even purchase it in different colors if you’re feeling extra trendy! Shelf liner and kitchen papers decompose easily in the compost and prevent the chicks from slipping.
Another bonus of shelf liner is that it is easy for chicks to distinguish the food from the floor. They are less likely to accidentally eat bedding this way.
Whatever you use, make sure you never let it get too wet or stay dirty for too long. In the first few days, make a point of cleaning it regularly.
Bacteria, like Coccidia, which is lethal to chickens, spread quickly in warm, wet locations. Ideally, you should clean your brooder every couple of days.
This will also help prevent your chickens’ feet from becoming dirty and, well, from making your entire house smell if you’re keeping the brooder inside!
A word of caution about newspaper – many people use this inside their brooders as it is inexpensive and easy to come by. However, newspaper can be slippery to newly hatched chicks, and can cause spraddle leg.
This condition is similar to a dislocated leg and is impossible to reserve. Try to use bedding other than newspaper whenever possible to help prevent this.
Heat Lamp and Thermometer
Baby chicks need heat. They will die without it. In nature, the mother hen uses her body to keep her baby chicks warm during the first few weeks of their lives. You need to replicate this warmth in your brooder.
The Lamp– Like brooders, there are several different options when it comes to your heat source, ranging from expensive infrared heaters to the common household light bulb.
Don’t feel obligated to spend a fortune or buy the most “promising” product on the market. Your heat lamp doesn’t have to be anything fancy. We like to use a clamping lamp so we can clip it up and hang it over the brooder.
Whatever you use, you do want to make sure that the fixture doesn’t get too hot when kept on constantly.
You also want something that can be secured, and won’t fall onto the chicks or into the bedding. You can pick up a heat lamp at a farm supply store, or order one online.
Not to scare you, but there are multiple stories and news reports floating around online about brooders that have caught on fire as a result of a poorly secured heat source.
These bulbs can get extremely hot, and brooder bedding tends to be made out of flammable materials (such as wood shavings or paper products). Therefore, if your heat lamp falls, you run the risk of a major fire.
Keep in mind that that’s not the only hazard. Heat lamps tend to gather dust as the chickens grow and develop feathers. This dust can also get hot and, in rare circumstances, ignite.
The best way to avoid a fire is to make sure your lamp is secure at all times, and to also purchase a bulb with a guard. The guard will help keep some of the hot bulb off the flammable material if it does happen to fall.
Better yet, cover your brooder with a wire or mesh lid so that if the bulb falls or gets knocked over, it won’t land on the bedding or the birds.
As your chickens grow, they will become extra flighty and can fly into your heat lamp, knocking it down no matter how well you have it secured.
A lid will perform double-duty, preventing the birds from flying out and knocking over your lamp, and also from running amok outside of the brooder.
Do your research and buy the heat source that will work best for your brooder location, power source, preferences, and budget.
If you’re storing your brooder in your home, I would personally opt for the safest (read: most expensive) heat source available, because you definitely don’t want to run the risk of catching your house on fire in addition to your brooder in the worst case scenario.
There are plenty of options out there to maximize your safety, such as chick heating plate kits. These kits are expensive, but they are more similar to the heat provided by a mother hen, and not only keep your brooder fireproof but also help your chicks grow and feather out a little bit faster – a win-win.
Otherwise, here are your choices for a heat source.
The Bulb– Again, there are choices here. Typically, you would use one of the following types of bulbs…
- Incandescent bulbs– Otherwise known as regular ol’ household bulbs. This is what we use. Don’t use anything less than a 75 watt bulb to start with though, or you won’t get enough heat. If you live in a cold location or have your chickens in a damp environment, this might not be sufficient.
- Incandescent floodlight– Designed for outdoor use; also a good option for a broader swath of light.
- Halogen bulbs– These last longer than incandescent bulbs, and provide more heat for less energy.
- Infrared Heat Lamp Bulb (red or white)- More expensive, but they last longer and provide more heat than regular bulbs for less energy. Some say the red glow helps prevent chicks from pecking each other, but I’ve never had a problem with this. A 125-watt bulb or greater should be sufficient.
- Ceramic bulb (or ceramic infrared heat emitter)- More expensive, but it does not emit light, only heat. It will last much longer than other bulbs, and uses less energy. You’ll need a 100-watt ceramic bulb.
Or, as I’ve mentioned, you could spend a little more and buy a heat panel such as the EcoGlow.
Heat panels are definitely more efficient than a lamp, and there is no fear of them falling over. These are adjustable so that as the chickens grow older, you can raise the legs to provide them with more room and a cooler environment.
Personally, I’ve found our clamping lamp with a 75 watt regular household bulb to work just fine.
Thermometer- you’ll also need a thermometer in your brooder box to tell you what temperature it is under your heat source. Keep the thermometer directly under the light for best results.
- Start the brooder at between 90-95*F, and reduce it by about 5*F every week until the brooder is at about 70*. You can reduce the heat by raising the lamp or heat source, or by switching to a lower-watt bulb.
- If the room they are in is already warm, or if it’s warm outdoors, you won’t need as much heat. Keep an eye on your chicken’s behavior to get the best idea of how they are regulating their body temperatures.
- Keep a steady temperature day and night.
- Chicks need a steady heat until they’ve completely feathered out, meaning they’ve lost the baby fluff and their true feathers have grown in.
- Generally, you can plan on having your chicks under a light for 3-6 weeks, depending on their breed, how many you have, and the weather. (The more chicks you have, the more body heat they generate.)
TIP: Watching your chicks is the best way to know if you need to adjust their heat. If the chicks stay huddled underneath the light, they’re cold, and you should either lower the light source or increase the bulb wattage.
If the chicks stay as far as they can from the light, it’s too hot. You know your chicks are comfortable when they’re active and spread out evenly around the brooder.
Waterer and Feeder
Before your chicks arrive, you want to be sure you have a proper watering container and feeder ready to go. You’ll also want some chick starter feed to fill your feeder with.
Starter feeds are those with proteins between 10 and 20 percent. They are specially formulated to provide your chicks with all the nutrition they need.
If you are also raising game birds, like turkeys or pheasant, you will want a higher protein content (closer to 24 percent).
Chick starter should be used until the chickens are around ten weeks of age, at which point you can transition to a grower and then layer or broiler feed (depending on the purpose of your chickens).
If you’ve mail-ordered chicks, it is recommended that you put a little sugar in the water to give them a boost of energy.
Mix 1/2 c. table sugar into 1 qt. of water for 1-2 days.
When you fill the chicks’ watering container, use lukewarm water (test on the inside of your wrist, like you would a baby’s bottle). Cold water will chill baby chicks.
The Waterer– you can buy one online or at a farm supply store, or you can make your own. There are plenty of tutorials online for making one out of recycled materials.
Watering nipples are also an option, although young chicks don’t always take to this right away, so you may need another waterer until they learn how to use the nipples. .
You basically need something that won’t spill, and that isn’t big enough that the chicks can get in it and drown.
If you have a larger waterer, consider partially filling it with small stones so that the chickens can’t fall in (think larger stones, though, because they might accidentally eat smaller ones).
Your chickens will need fresh, clean water at all time. A rule of thumb is that every four chickens needs about a quart of water every day. However, this will vary depending on the weather, the brooder location, and how active your chicks are.
TIP: When your baby chicks arrive, dip each one’s beak into the water to show it where the water is. They don’t have to drink, but at least now they know where they can go to drink when they’re ready.
You might also consider adding a teaspoon of Terramycin per gallon of water. This is especially important, as is sugar, to add to your water if your chickens were bought as day-old chicks and mailed to you.
It helps reverse some of the stress of shipping and boosts your chickens’ immunity – a must if you are introducing them to an already-started flock.
The Feeder– You can buy one like this, or make something yourself. Whatever you use, it’s best to have a container that won’t spill, and that the chicks can’t walk around and poop in.
While you don’t need to feed your chicks within the first twenty-four hours or so (even slightly longer if you incubated your chicks yourself), as they are still receiving benefits from their yolk while in the egg and shortly after, you should provide steady access to feed after the first few days.
For both your feeder and waterer, paying attention to the material the item is constructed out of is important. Galvanized metal containers are great, but if you’re sterilizing them with vinegar, this can be dangerous as it causes the container to leach harmful chemicals.
Plastics are now the most common material used by professional farmers and backyard chicken owners alike, largely because they are nonporous and do not allow bacteria to seep through.
They are cost effective and won’t rust, making them ideal for multiple years of use.
*Be sure to keep the food and water containers filled at all times. Never let them run out of either, as this can be devastating to your flock.
Your brooder box is ready and your chicks are eagerly awaiting their new home. Make sure that clean bedding is down, the food and water is in place, and the heat lamp has heated the box to 90-95*F before putting the chicks in.
If hatching chicks in an incubator, allow them to dry off completely before putting them in the brooder (this can take anywhere between twelve and twenty-four hours, but keep in mind that it’s find to leave the chicks in the incubator for this period – they have plenty of nutrition left over from the egg).
Mail-ordered or locally purchased baby chicks will be ready to go straight into the brooder box.
Disclosure: if you visit an external link in this post and make a purchase, I may earn a commission. Read my full earnings disclosure here.
A really good resource you might want to get your hands on is Hatching & Brooding Your Own Chicks by Gail Damerow. This is by far one of my favorite chick raising books.
Common Issues When Raising Chicks in Brooders
While raising chicks in brooders is a relatively easy process, there are some common pitfalls you may encounter.
Don’t panic! For example, if you are purchasing mail-order chicks, they sometimes arrive to their destination dehydrated from the shipping process.
To combat this, dip your chicks’ beaks into water with a vitamin and electrolyte solution. This can help give them energy and necessary vitamins.
Another common problem is pasty butt. I’ve found that using a heat plate or a similar gentle form of heat helps to prevent this, but besides that, it is virtually unavoidable.
Pasty butt, also known as pasted vent or simply “pasting up,” is when poop covers the area surrounding a chicken’s vent (which is where droppings and eggs exit).
This build-up can be caused by stress, a lack of heat, too much heat, or even something they ate. Keep an eye on your chickens’ vents and if they seem to be caked with droppings, loosen then with warm water and a paper towel. You can also dab on some antibiotic ointment or petroleum jelly.
If – God forbid – your chicks begin to die unexpectedly, there could be several causes.
If you lose just one or two and there appear to be no other signs of distress in your developing flock, it’s likely that those chickens were the unfortunate victims of some genetic or birth defects. There’s nothing you can do in that situation,
Sometimes, your heat in the brooder can be off. If your chicks are too warm, they will huddle in the corners of the box and may exhibit some digestive problems.
Keep your heat source around eighteen inches from the top of the bedding for the best results. Similarly, if your brooder is too cold, they will be huddled directly under the heat source.
Healthy chickens will spend a large portion of the day running around, sleeping all over the brooder, and exploring – not only sleeping under the heat lamp or in the corners.
Other common issues include stale feed, which can lose nutritional value, and a lack of equal access to the feed. Chicks can also trample and peck each other, or even eat the bedding.
Pay attention to your chickens and don’t go for long periods without checking them – this time in your chickens’ lives is crucial to raising a healthy, happy flock later on.
As you can see, creating the perfect brooder box can be as expensive or inexpensive as you want it to be. A 100% homemade set up can be just as efficient as anything you could buy from the store. So don’t feel like it’s beyond your budget to raise chicks!
With good care, your baby chicks will thrive in their new home. During these next few weeks, be thinking about where you’ll be moving your babies once they’re old enough to live without the additional heat.
Have you raised baby chicks yet? Got any advice you’d like to add?
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A city girl learning to homestead on an acre of land in the country. Wife and homeschooling mother of four. Enjoying life, and everything that has to do with self sufficient living.